Season of Advent reminds us why universal declaration of human rights still matters

Universal declaration of human rights? United nations? International cooperation? International order? Preventing wars? Striving for peace? Respecting human dignity? It is almost 70 years since this declaration was proclaimed and yet it is hard to shake the impression that many people/nations/leaders could care less…

I look up at the calendar on my kitchen wall and there it is – December 10 as Human Rights Day. I go to Facebook and there it is again – you can click ‘Like’ or share it on your wall. (I did not share it since I did not like the design. Or maybe I am just tired of online activism where we post slogans, memes, famous quotes, provocative statements and anything else to “make this world a better place”. But here I am writing this blog. I guess at the end of the day it is still better to add my voice to issues I deeply care about.)

This Sunday is also a religious celebration of Second Advent. In the Christian tradition and calendar it is a time of waiting and preparation. Waiting for the Hope and Light of the world to be born in a seemingly hopeless and dark place and welcoming this coming with open heart and mind. We sing “Oh come, oh come, Emmanuel” and we do it every year. Why keep saying it if we believe He has come already?  There are many theological reasons but one simple reason I can give is we need to remind ourselves what this life and this world is like without Him.

It is amazing how quickly we get used to the good news, things and good times and take it for granted. It is also amazing how quickly we can descend into hopelessness and darkness again.

For very long time now, we take Jesus of Nazareth and the way he transforms our human existence for granted. Nowadays we also take the Universal declaration of human rights for granted. We cannot imagine a world without these commonly accepted principles because most of us did not live before 1948 and during Second World War. We, at least the Westerners, are so used to speaking about our human rights that we think nothing of it.

But here I read the lines from the declaration’s preamble: “The advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people.

(…) Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations.

Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,

Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,

Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.”

Have we achieved and experienced the advent of this kind of world yet? Are all people free to speak their mind, practice their religion, free from fear and want? Are we, the peoples of United Nations, keeping our pledge? Do we even believe in this larger freedom? Do we still have common understanding and emphasize the word “common”? Or are we putting our trust in the world of “mine”? My country. My people. My rights.

The answer is obvious. Thus we are still waiting, still striving and longing…

“O come, Thou Wisdom from on high,
And order all things, far and nigh;
To us the path of knowledge show,
And cause us in her ways to go.

O come, Desire of nations, bind
All peoples in one heart and mind;
Bid envy, strife and quarrels cease;
Fill the whole world with heaven’s peace.
Rejoice! Rejoice! Emmanuel
Shall come to thee, O Israel”

 

 

Good Friday and The Cranberries in my head

The keywords  – Ireland, The Cranberries, Good Friday and Jesus – are not equal in importance but they are all part of my story.

I am a big fan of Ireland! I have never lived there (my brother has, my friends and close relatives do) but I have always been fascinated by it. The Celtic art, the history, the music, the land, the people. No, let’s put the hospitality first! Through marriage I even inherited a family name that is well-known in Ireland. Lansdowne road, Lansdowne rugby club and so on.  My American husband is an ‘Irish wanna-be’.

I am a big fan of 90’s rock bands! The Cranberries, Pearl Jam, Jesus Jones and Nirvana to name just a few. While living in Southeast Asia, I discovered how much Asians like to sing cover songs and I cannot count how many times I heard “Smells Like Teen Spirits” or “Zombie“, And every time I heard someone sing “Zombie” in open cafe, bar or street corner, I could not help but think, “They probably have no idea. What if they understood what the Troubles in Northern Ireland were?”

When I first heard this song I did not pay attention to the lyrics either. At the time it was just another popular rock song with great female vocals. We tried to sing as angry and aggressive as Dolores O’Riordan because we felt it was a protest song. But protesting against what? And what is this zombie in your head?

“Another head hangs lowly
Child is slowly taken
And the violence caused such silence
Who are we mistaken

But you see it’s not me
It’s not my family
In your head, in your
Head they are fighting

In your head, in your head
Zombie, zombie, zombie”

This song came to my mind recently! Last week I wrote about Syria and my words felt so inadequate, small and flat.  Innocent children keep dying in this war and I hear this angry and aggressive voice  singing again “And the violence caused such silence, Who are we mistaken?”

Here is the important part – I am also a big fan of Jesus of Nazareth! This week Christians around the world are celebrating and remembering the events that are the cornerstone of our faith . For me it has everything to do with what I see around. Borrowing the words of a Croat theologian Miroslav Volf, “A genuinely Christian reflection on social issues must be rooted in the self-giving love of the divine Trinity as manifested on the cross of Christ.” To many people the cross is an offensive symbol but I think of it as a scandal. This kind of humiliation and seeming defeat is the ultimate scandal. Jesus gives himself for the others but the violence does not stop. It takes his life and the powers-to-be seem unshaken.

But there is no way around the cross. There is no modern or post-modern solution to our or any age. M. Volf thinks that modernity creates “culture of social hope” and post-modernity creates “culture of endurance”. Jesus creates neither. Our world is healed by the “weakness” and “foolishness” of the self-giving love.

Going back to the Cranberries and Northern Ireland, I am also a big fan of Good Friday Agreement! What a beautiful name to have for a reconciliation process! Next year it will be 20 years since it was agreed in Belfast on April 10, 1998. Again I am speaking as an outsider who has neither lived through the violence nor faced the challenges and the walls that still exist. But I have much hope and faith and the people in Northern Ireland show us all something crucial.

Our world desperately needs Good Friday agreements. Unless we want to keep singing, “In your head, in your head… zombie, zombie… du, du, du, du”

Cranberries

The Cranberries (photos from internet)

 

Irish way of turning Darkness into Light

For those who noticed that I took a little break from writing… there are times when you just have to give full attention to the people you are with, seize the moment and enjoy it. So, I had put the computer away. And who wants to be on computer when you are visiting the beautifully green and ancient land of Ireland?

Now back in Riga I reflect on my favorite thing to see in Dublin – the Book of Kells. Probably the most beautiful book I have ever seen is Ireland’s most precious cultural treasure. It continues to amaze every time I visit the exhibition at Trinity College Dublin. This handwritten copy of the four Gospels of the life of Jesus Christ which was completed around 800 AD is so beautifully decorated and hand painted that it continues to inspire artists and scientists on how the authors actually did it. Many of the illustrations are so microscopic and intricate.

Most academics believe that this ancient Latin manuscript was written in a monastery founded around 561 by St Colum Cille on Iona, an island off Mull in western Scotland. It became the principal house of a large monastic confederation. In 806, following a Viking raid on the island, the Columban monks took refuge in a new monastery at Kells, County Meath, Ireland. Most likely they brought the manuscript with them or produced parts of it in Kells.

The famous paintings include symbols of the evangelists Matthew as the Man, Mark as the Lion, Luke as the Calf and John as the Eagle, the opening words of the Gospels, the Virgin and Child and a portrait of Christ. The Chi Rho page which introduces Matthew’s account of the nativity is simply stunning and widely considered the most famous page in medieval art.

Some years ago I read a book “How The Irish Saved Civilization” by Thomas Cahill. His main thesis was that the tradition of monasteries, including Saint Columba  and the monks on the island of Iona where ancient manuscripts were gathered, copied and cared for, helped to preserve the cultural treasures of Europe and other parts of the world. I know one thing for sure – there was much more happening in the Middle Ages than what we were told in  school. When I was growing up in Latvia, we were still taught the Soviet/communist version of the world history. Of course, no mention of monks, monasteries or any positive contribution of religion to our cultures.

I am glad that the term ‘Dark Ages’ is not used anymore… because there is Light and Darkness in all ages. People and communities make choices and respond to the times they live in. Some choose to take what is not theirs and destroy what they have not built. But other choose to give away what they have received and build for the future generations to be blessed and to enjoy.

Hopefully we don’t have to save civilizations anymore but we do know that the choice between the Light and the Darkness is always with us… Thank you, the Irish, for reminding us of these timeless truths!

chi-rho-page

Chi Rho page (photos from internet)

Latvian:

Vispirms sveicieni tiem, kuri ievēroja, ka es pāris nedēļas ‘atpūtos’ no rakstīšanas… jā, ir reizes, kad vajag veltīt visu savu uzmanību mīļiem cilvēkiem, nepalaist garām kaut ko īpašu un to izbaudīt. Un kurš tad grib sēdēt pie datora, ciemojoties tik skaisti zaļajā un senatnīgajā Īrijā?

Tagad atpakaļ Rīgā es pārdomāju vienu no lietām, ko ir tiešām vērts redzēt Dublinā – Kellu grāmata (saukta arī Ķeltu vai Kēlu grāmata). Uzdrīkstos apgalvot, ka šis Īrijas nacionālais kultūras dārgums ir visskaistākā grāmata, ko esmu jebkad redzējusi. Tā glabājas Trinitijas koledžā pašā Dublinas centrā. Ar roku rakstītais manuskripts satur četrus Jaunās Derības evanģēlijus par Jēzus Kristus dzīvi un ir krāšņi un meistarīgi izrotāts ar miniatūrām un viduslaiku ornamentiem. Tas turpina iedvesmot māksliniekus un zinātniekus, kuri pēta, kā to vispār varēja tik smalki un mikroskopiski izveidot un uzzīmēt.

Kellu grāmatu datē ap 800. gadu, un tā ir rakstīta latīņu valodā. Lielākā daļa pētnieku uzskata, ka tā ir sarakstīta klosterī, kuru 6. gadsimtā Aijonas (Iona) salā, Skotijas rietumu piekrastē, nodibināja Sv. Kolumbs. 806.gadā salai kārtējo reizi uzbruka vikingi, un daudzi mūki tika nogalināti. Pārējie atrada aptvērumu Īrijā, jaunā klosterī Kellas ciemā. Visticamāk mūki šo manuskriptu atveda sev līdzi no Aijonas, vai arī tas tika pabeigts Kellā.

Slavenās ilustrācijas attēlo četru evnģēlistu simbolus. Matejs simbolizēts kā Cilvēks, Marks kā Lauva, Lūka kā Jērs un Jānis kā Ērglis. Katra evanģēlija ievadā ir skaisti zīmējumi. Gan Kristus portrets, gan Jaunava ar Bērnu ir ievērojami mākslas darbi. Viena no slavenākajām un visskaistāk ilustrētajām lappusēm skaitās Mateja evanģēlija ievads par Jezus piedzimšanu. Patiess viduslaiku šedevrs!

Pirms dažiem gadiem es lasīju Tomasa Keihila grāmatu “Kā īri izglāba civilizāciju” (How The Irish Saved Civilization by Thomas Cahill). Viņa galvenā tēze bija, ka viduslaiku klosteru un mūku tradīcija, tai skaitā Sv. Kolumbs un kopiena Aijonas salā, kur tika savākti, glabāti un pārkopēti neskaitāmi senlaiku manuskripti, palīdzēja izglābt šos Eiropas un Tuvo Austrumu kultūras dārgumus. Katrā ziņā viduslaikos bija daudz vairāk Gaismas, kā Apgaismība mums apgalvo. Un daudz vairāk Gaismas, kā man tika mācīts skolā Padomju Latvijā, kur par mūkiem, klosteriem un vispār par reliģijas pozitīvo ietekmi uz Eiropas kultūras attīstību netika minēts nekas. Jo tā laika vēstures versija uzsvēra, ka reliģija ir ‘tumsonība, varaskāre, vardarbība un turklāt meli, kuros dzīvo dumjās masas’.

Tas ir labi, ka vairs nav populāri lietot apzīmējumu ‘Tumšie viduslaiki’… jo visos laikos un laikmetos ir bijusi gan Gaisma, gan Tumsa. Cilvēki, kopienas un tautas izdara izvēles. Vieni izvēlas ņemt to, kas viņiem nepieder, un iznīcināt to, ko paši nav cēluši. Otri izvēlas dot citiem to labo, ko ir mantojuši un saņēmuši, un celt tālāk, lai nākamās paaudzes var dzīvot labāku dzīvi.

Cerams, ka mūsu paaaudzei nav jācīnās par civilizāciju saglabāšanu, tacu mēs zinām, ka izvēle starp Gaismu un Tumsu ir vienmēr mūsu priekšā… Paldies viduslaiku mūkiem Īrijā, ka viņi mums atgādina par šīm nemainīgajām patiesībām!

Looking at our compass to guide through the EU crisis

For sure I am no expert on the EU but I do know a thing or two. Firstly, most people, including myself, recognize that we are in a serious crisis. You hear it described as ‘existential’. The question of ‘to be or not to be’.

Also, I know that any crisis and pressure – personal or social – exposes and reveals many things. It exposes our inner thoughts, our character and values. Like a piece of fruit, under pressure we crack and ‘juice’ comes out. Is it a bitter lemon or sweet mango? We learn more about each other when things get hard. While the sun is shining, we can be polite, respectful, unselfish and share smile and hugs. When disaster or tragedy strikes, we often react in unexpected ways.

I have noticed this in my own life. I can be quite satisfied with myself when things are easy but during a major challenge or stress I suddenly start thinking, doing and saying things that later make me ashamed. Some of it is normal and healthy but some of it is very ugly and shocking.

Major crisis will often have different results. Some people (and communities and nations) go though it with dignity and it makes them a better person – wiser, gentler, more compassionate, generous and humble while others become worse – foolish, harsh, bitter, proud and aggressive. Or they simply give up on living. This is the age-old mystery for philosophers and spiritual leaders and all of us. Where does the inner strength come from? Where does the courage and wisdom come from when there seems no ‘way through’ or no ‘way forward’?

There is a saying that “Trouble does not come alone” or “When it rains, it pours”. Well, it is pouring trouble right now in Europe. I am sure that for many of the EU leaders it feels like a hurricane (I should not say this since I am writing this blog but I would not want their job). Grexit, Brexit, refugees, border closures, barbed wire fences, Russia, Ukraine, right-wing, left-wing, new tribalism…

Our official EU motto is “United in diversity.” Nobody doubts the ‘diversity’ part but what about the other? Jean-Claude Juncker, the President of the European Commission, said these words in his State of Union address in 2015. “There is not enough Europe in this Union. And there is not enough Union in this Union.” So, we continue to see reactions and actions and many of those have shocked us. I hear this expression a lot, “We are cutting the branch we are sitting on.” What is this branch?

I think of it as our moral compass. There are major directions it is supposed to point to:

Peace and Reconciliation: In 2012, the EU received the Nobel Peace Prize for having “contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy, and human rights in Europe” We have enjoyed peace among the EU member states for many decades and we start to take it for granted. This peace was very hard to accomplish and the reconciliation is still ongoing. Again and again we forget that if France and Germany did not reconcile, we would not have any European integration. It is also important to know and to remember that the political leaders who made these courageous decisions, were very much inspired by their religious beliefs and values.

Humanity and Human Rights: One of the high expectations of anyone who lives in Europe and those who come here is the emphasis on dignity and worth of every individual human being. Again it has spiritual roots – human beings made in the image of God. European Convention on Human Rights was adopted in 1950. It is a  “living instrument” which means that it incorporates changes in law and society. It is legally binding for 47 European countries, not just the EU. Also, we have the European Court of Human Rights with possibly the highest success rate in the world. It is understandable why in so many interviews, the refugees and asylum seekers who have experienced mistreatment on our soil complain, “We thought that Europe is the place where human rights are respected.”

Common good and Solidarity: This is one of the most challenging principles of our supranational institutions. The idea that we share all the responsibilities and obligations as much as the privileges. The idea that bigger and stronger ones cannot take advantage of smaller and weaker ones. Again and again we see our solidarity tested and often we fail. The critics will say that it is humanly impossible; that nations are too selfish and greedy because we are human. It is true and that is why holding ourselves accountable to the goal of common good is existential.

Freedom and Democracy: There are certain standards that countries need to achieve before they can become members of the EU. Latvia had to do its own homework for the privilege of joining. What was required?  A stable democracy that respects human rights and the rule of law. It was not easy and it still a work in progress but we have come a long way. Freedom has to be learned and lived. Tunne Kelam, MEP from Estonia, says, “True freedom is not arbitrary or aimless. True freedom is to reach truth and common good. “As we can see from so many examples around the world, it takes time and lots of political will.

Time of crisis is time for great opportunity. I agree with the words of Tomáš Halík, the Czech philosopher, priest and theologian. “We need great Europeans with spiritual strength, intellectual vitality and practical thinking. … European democracy needs European ‘demos’.”

 

53d9d93cdcd5888e145a6d35_maphead-center-europe-purnuskes-lithuania

Geographical center of Europe in Lithuania (photo from the Internet)

Latviski:

Katrā ziņā neesmu eksperte Eiropas Savienības jautājumos, tomēr šo to saprotu. Pirmkārt,  ir skaidrs, ka mēs piedzīvojam ļoti smagu krīzi. Daudzi to raksturo kā ‘eksistenciālu’. Tātad tiek uzdots jautājums – būt vai nebūt?

Vēl es zinu to, ka katra krīze un izaicinājums izgaismo un atklāj daudzas lietas. Gan personiskajā, gan sabiedrības dzīvē. Krīzes izgaismo mūsu dziļākās domas, raksturu un vērtības. Kā auglis, kuru saspiežot, iztek sula, arī mēs zem liela spiediena izrādam savu iekšieni. Vai esam skābs citrons vai salds mango? Mēs uzzinām viens par otru vairāk, kad iet grūti. Kad saule spīd, ir viegli būt pieklājīgiem, pazemīgiem, nesavtīgiem, un smaidīt, un apkampties. Kad problēmas vai nelaime, mēs bieži vien reaģējam pilnīgi neparedzētā veidā.

Es neesmu nekāds izņēmums. Kad man iet viegli un labi, esmu diezgan apmierināta ar sevi. Kad nonāku grūtos un sarežģītos apstākļos, pēkšņi sāku domāt, darīt un runāt lietas, ko pēc tam nožēloju vai par kurām kaunos. Daļēji tas ir normāli, veselīgi un cilvēcīgi, bet daļēji tas ir neglīti un šokējoši.

Krīzes noved pie dažādiem rezultātiem. Ir cilvēki (un kopienas un nācijas), kuri iet cauri grūtībām ar cilvēcisku cieņu un drosmi, un kļūst labāki – gudrāki, mierīgāki, žēlsirdīgāki, dāsnāki, pazemīgāki – , bet citi kļūst sliktāki – muļķīgāki, sarūgtināti, mazāk žēlsirdīgi, vēl skopāki, dusmīgi un agresīvi. Vai vienkārši pārstāj dzīvot pilnvērtīgu dzīvi. Tas ir tas lielais un mūžīgais noslēpums, ko cauri gadsimtiem mēģina izprast gudrie un vienkāršie. No kurienes nāk šis iekšējais spēks? No kurienes nāk gudrība un drosme atrast izeju no strupceļa jeb bezizejas?

Ir tāds teiciens, ka nelaime jeb problēma nenāk viena. Vai arī, kad līst, tad gāž. Nu, Eiropā gāžas pamatīgs ‘problēmu’ lietus. Varbūt daudziem ES vadītājiem liekas, ka pat orkāns. Lai gan rakstu, jo neesmu pret šīm lietām vienaldzīga, teikšu godīgi, ka negribētu būt viņu amatos šajā brīdī. Brexit, Grexit, patvēruma meklētāji, aizvērtas robežas, dzeloņdrāšu žogi, Krievija, Ukraina, galēji labējie, galēji kreisie, pašizolēšanās…

Mūsu oficiālā ES devīze ir “Vienoti dažādībā”. Neviens nešaubās par dažādību, bet kā ar to otro? Žans Klods Junkers, Eiropas Komisijas presidents, savā runā par Eiropas Savienības stāvokli 2015. gadā teica šādus vārdus. “Šajā Savienībā ir par maz Eiropas. Un šajā Savienībā ir par maz Savienības.” Mēs turpinam vērot eiropiešu dažādās reakcijas, darbības, vārdus, un daudz kas mūs šokē. Bieži dzirdu frāzi, ka paši zāģējam zaru, uz kura sēžam.

Uz kā tad mēs sēžam? Es to sauktu par mūsu morālo kompasu. Atļaušos atgādināt dažus no virzieniem, uz kuriem šim kompasam jānorāda.

Miers un izlīgums: 2012. gadā Eiropas Savienība saņēma Nobela Miera prēmiju par ieguldījumiem sešu desmitgažu garumā, veicinot mieru, izlīgumu, demokrātiju un cilvēktiesības. Mēs esam baudījuši šo mieru tik ilgi, ka esam jau pie tā pieraduši, un bieži vien pienācīgi nenovērtējam. Šo mieru nebija viegli sasniegt, un izlīguma process vēl daudzviet turpinās. Mēs piemirstam, ka, ja Francija un Vācija nebūtu izlīgušas, nekādas Eiropas integrācijas nebūtu. Vēl ir svarīgi atcerēties, ka tā laika politiķus un viņu drosmīgos lēmumus iedvesmoja viņu reliģiskā pārliecība.

Cilvēcīgums un cilvēktiesības: Viena no lietām, ko mēs sagaidām, dzīvojot vai pat tikai viesojoties Eiropā, ir cieņa pret katru individuālo cilvēku. Arī tam ir garīgs un morāls pamats – uzskats, ka katrs cilvēks ir īpašs un vērtīgs, jo radīts Dieva līdzībā. Eiropas Cilvēktiesību Konvencija tika pieņemta 1950. gadā, un tā seko izmaiņām likumos un sabiedrībā. To ir parakstījušas 47 valstis Eiropā, tātad ne tikai ES dalībvalstis. Vēl mums ir Eiropas Cilvēktiesību Tiesa, kas darbojas ar lieliem panākumiem. Tāpēc ir viegli saprast, kāpēc tik daudzās intervijās ar patvēruma meklētājiem, kuri piedzīvojuši sliktu apiešanos vai cilvēktiesību pārkāpumus, var dzirdēt vārdus – mēs sagaidījām, ka Eiropa ir tā vieta, kur tiek ievērotas cilvēku tiesības.

Kopīgais labums un solidaritāte: Šķiet, ka te ir vislielākais izaicinājums mūsu pārnacionālajām (supranacionālajām) attiecībām un institūcijām. Ideja un ideāls, ka mēs dalām pienākumus un atbildību, ne tikai privilēģijas un labumus. Ideāls, ka lielākie un stiprākie nevar izmantot mazākos un vājākos. Šī kopība tiek nemitīgi pārbaudīta, un mēs bieži atkrītam. Kritiķi un skeptiķi teiks, ka šis ideāls vispār nav sasniedzams, jo nācijas ir pārāk egoistiskas un mantkārīgas, jo tās vada vienkārši cilvēki. Tā ir realitāte, un tāpēc ir tik svarīgi pašiem turēt šo latiņu augstu un negrozāmu, lai domātu par kopīgo, nevis tikai savējo labumu. Savādāk varam iet katrs savā viensētā, un celt savus žogus.

Brīvība un demokrātija: Lai kļūtu par ES dalībvalsti, ir jāparakstās zem šīm politiskajām tradīcijām un brīvības un likuma mantojuma. Latvijai bija jāveic liels mājasdarbs, lai iegūtu šo privilēģiju. Kas tika pieprasīts? Stabila demokrātija, kur tiek ievērotas cilvēktiesības un likums. To sasniegt nebija tik vienkārši, un mums daudz kas vēl jāuzlabo, bet esam nogājuši  lielu ceļa gabalu. Brīvību ir jāmācās un jāpraktizē. Tune Kelams, padomju laika disidents un šobrīd EP deputāts no Igaunijas, atgādina, ka “Brīvība nav nejauša vai bezmērķīga. Patiesa brīvība ved uz patiesību un kopīgo labumu.” Kā mēs varam secināt no daudziem starptautiskiem piemēriem, ir vajadzīgs laiks un stipra politiska griba.

Jebkura krīze ir arī laiks lielām iespējām. Piekrītu Tomašam Halikam, čehu filozofam, katoļu priesterim un teologam, ka “mums vajadzīgi eiropieši ar garīgu spēku, intelektuālu enerģiju un praktisko domāšanu. … Eiropas demokrātijai ir vajadzīgs eiropeisks demos.”